Aspects of the biopsy of the testis from the pathologist's point of view are discussed. Direct enzyme-histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase (dAP) on frozen sections of biopsies taken during operation is a useful diagnostic tool to aid surgeons in testis-sparing surgery. Biopsy of the contralateral testis for the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour is not standard of care in most countries because of the high rate of negative biopsies. Based on risk factors for germ cell tumours, i.p. microlithiasis, a patient population is defined in which the rate of CIS in the contralateral biopsy is about 25%. It is reiterated that the diagnosis of CIS in testicular biopsies requires expertise, and should not be carried out without immunohistochemistry for markers for CIS. As OCT3/4 is increasingly used as marker, it is important to be aware that it may be false-negative in biopsies fixed in Bouin's or Stieve's fixative. Preliminary results are presented on a series of biopsies from cryptorchid testes in infants and children allowing the definition of morphological and immunohistochemical criteria for delayed maturation of gonocytes and pre-CIS.
- Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
- Carcinoma in Situ/chemistry
- Child, Preschool
- Early Detection of Cancer/methods
- Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/chemistry
- Testicular Neoplasms/chemistry