A pathologist's view on the testis biopsy

J W Oosterhuis, H Stoop, G Dohle, W Boellaard, N van Casteren, K Wolffenbuttel, L H J Looijenga

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Aspects of the biopsy of the testis from the pathologist's point of view are discussed. Direct enzyme-histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase (dAP) on frozen sections of biopsies taken during operation is a useful diagnostic tool to aid surgeons in testis-sparing surgery. Biopsy of the contralateral testis for the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour is not standard of care in most countries because of the high rate of negative biopsies. Based on risk factors for germ cell tumours, i.p. microlithiasis, a patient population is defined in which the rate of CIS in the contralateral biopsy is about 25%. It is reiterated that the diagnosis of CIS in testicular biopsies requires expertise, and should not be carried out without immunohistochemistry for markers for CIS. As OCT3/4 is increasingly used as marker, it is important to be aware that it may be false-negative in biopsies fixed in Bouin's or Stieve's fixative. Preliminary results are presented on a series of biopsies from cryptorchid testes in infants and children allowing the definition of morphological and immunohistochemical criteria for delayed maturation of gonocytes and pre-CIS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e14-9; discussion e20
JournalInternational journal of andrology
Issue number4 Pt 2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Adult
  • Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
  • Biopsy/methods
  • Carcinoma in Situ/chemistry
  • Child, Preschool
  • Early Detection of Cancer/methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/chemistry
  • Testicular Neoplasms/chemistry


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