Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using External Beam or Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Oncological Outcomes of a Prospective Cohort Study

Daphne H.M. Jacobs, Mirjam E. Mast, Nanda Horeweg, Gabrielle Speijer, Anna L. Petoukhova, Marieke Straver, Emile G. Coerkamp, Hans Marten Hazelbag, Jos Merkus, Ellen M.A. Roeloffzen, Lida G. Zwanenburg, Joost van der Sijp, Marta Fiocco, Corrie A.M. Marijnen, Peter C.M. Koper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To evaluate the ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after 2 accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) techniques (intraoperative electron radiation therapy [IOERT] and external beam APBI [EB-APBI]) in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2011 and 2016, women ≥60 years of age with breast carcinoma or Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) of ≤30 mm and cN0 undergoing breast-conserving therapy were included in a 2-armed prospective multicenter cohort study. IOERT (1 × 23.3 Gy prescribed at the 100% isodose line) was applied in 1 hospital and EB-APBI (10 × 3.85 Gy daily) in 2 other hospitals. The primary endpoint was IBTR (all recurrences in the ipsilateral breast irrespective of localization) at 5 years after lumpectomy. A competing risk model was used to estimate the cumulative incidences of IBTR, which were compared using Fine and Gray's test. Secondary endpoints were locoregional recurrence rate, distant recurrence, disease-specific survival and overall survival. Univariate Cox regression models were estimated to identify risk factors for IBTR. Analyses were performed of the intention to treat (ITT) population (IOERT n = 305; EB-APBI n = 295), and sensitivity analyses were done of the per-protocol population (IOERT n = 270; EB-APBI n = 207). Results: The median follow-up was 5.2 years (IOERT) and 5 years (EB-APBI). Cumulative incidence of IBTR in the ITT population at 5 years after lumpectomy was 10.6% (95% confidence interval, 7.0%-14.2%) after IOERT and 3.7% (95% confidence interval, 1.2%-5.9%) after EB-APBI (P = .002). The locoregional recurrence rate was significantly higher after IOERT than EB-APBI (12.1% vs 4.5%, P = .001). There were no differences between groups in other endpoints. Sensitivity analysis showed similar results. For both groups, no significant risk factors for IBTR were identified in the ITT population. In the per-protocol population, surgical margin status of the DCIS was the only significant risk factor for developing IBTR in both treatment groups. Conclusions: Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences and locoregional recurrence rates were unexpectedly high in patients treated with IOERT, and acceptable in patients treated with EB-APBI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)570-581
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Brachytherapy/methods
  • Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy
  • Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating/radiotherapy
  • Cohort Studies
  • Electrons
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mastectomy, Segmental/methods
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Prospective Studies


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