Anti-GD2 Based Immunotherapy Prevents Late Events in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients over 18 Months at Diagnosis

Michelle L Tas, Lisa W Dootjes, Marta Fiocco, Ronald R de Krijger, Miranda P Dierselhuis, Natasha K A van Eijkelenburg, Martine van Grotel, Kathelijne C J M Kraal, Annemarie M L Peek, Godelieve A M Tytgat, Max M van Noesel

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2 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Anti-GD2 based immunotherapy has improved overall (OS) and event free survival (EFS) for high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL) patients. Here, we evaluate the long-term efficacy of anti-GD2 immunotherapy in combination with isotretinoin, GM-CSF, and IL-2.

METHODS: Dutch HR-NBL patients treated with immunotherapy according to the COG-ANBL0032 protocol (n = 47) were included and compared to historical controls (n = 37) treated with single-agent isotretinoin maintenance therapy. Survival time was calculated from start of the maintenance therapy.

RESULTS: The study and control group were similar concerning baseline characteristics. In the complete cohort, 5 year OS was 64 ± 7% and 49 ± 8% for the immunotherapy group and the control group, respectively (p = 0.16). Five year EFS was 57 ± 7% and 41 ± 8%, respectively (p = 0.16). In the subgroup of patients ≥ 18 months, 5-yr OS was 63 ± 8% and 39 ± 9, respectively (p = 0.04) and EFS 54 ± 8% and 29 ± 8%, respectively (p = 0.05). Landmark analysis for EFS with landmark point at 6 months after start of maintenance suggests a larger effect on the prevention of late than early events.

CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to confirm the results of the COG-ANBL0032 study in a cohort treated with a different induction regimen. Anti-GD2 immunotherapy prevents late events, most significantly in patients older than 18 months of age at diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4941
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2021


  • Anti-GD2
  • High-risk
  • Immunotherapy
  • Metastatic
  • Neuroblastoma


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