Background : For a definitive diagnosis in many oncological, inflammatory and infectious diseases histological examination is required. Non-palpable lesions detected with PET/CT scanning that cannot be localized with conventional imaging methods can be localized and excised using FDG-probe guided surgery. We describe the application of FDG-probe guided surgery in 9 patients. Methods : The application of FDG-probe guided surgery used in 9 consecutive patients with oncological and infectious diseases is described. Four hours before surgery, 3.5 MBq/Kg body weight FDG was intravenously administered after which a FDG-PET-scan was performed to confirm the FDG-avid lesion(s). The lesions with highest activity were detected with the FDG-probe and the lesions were subsequently excised and sent for histopathological examination. Results : In all of the 9 cases the target lesion was successfully identified and subsequently removed. When multiple and/or macroscopically normal lymph nodes were found, the use of the FDG-probe allowed selection of the PET-avid lymph nodes for resection. Conclusion : FDG-probe guided surgery is a relatively simple surgical technique to identify and excise FDG-accumulating suspicious lesions in oncological, inflammatory and infectious diseases.