Importance: Nephron-sparing surgery can be considered in well-defined cases of unilateral and bilateral Wilms tumors, but the surgical procedure can be very challenging for the pediatric surgeon to perform.
Objective: To assess the added value of personalized 3-dimensional (3-D) kidney models derived from conventional imaging data to enhance preoperative surgical planning.
Design, Setting, and Participants: In a survey study, the conventional imaging data of 10 Dutch children with Wilms tumors were converted to 3-D prints and augmented reality (AR) holograms and a panel of pediatric oncology surgeons (n = 7) assessed the quality of the different imaging methods during preoperative evaluation. Kidney models were created with 3-D printing and AR using a mixed reality headset for visualization.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in the assessment of 4 anatomical structures (tumor, arteries, veins, and urinary collecting structures) using questionnaires. A Likert scale measured differences between the imaging methods, with scores ranging from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree).
Results: Of the 10 patients, 7 were girls, and the mean (SD) age was 3.7 (1.7) years. Compared with conventional imaging, the 3-D print and the AR hologram models were evaluated by the surgeons to be superior for all anatomical structures: tumor (median scores for conventional imaging, 4.07; interquartile range [IQR], 3.62-4.15 vs 3-D print, 4.67; IQR, 4.14-4.71; P = .008 and AR hologram, 4.71; IQR, 4.26-4.75; P = .002); arteries (conventional imaging, 3.62; IQR, 3.43-3.93 vs 3-D print, 4.54; IQR, 4.32-4.71; P = .002 and AR hologram, 4.83; IQR, 4.64-4.86; P < .001), veins (conventional imaging, 3.46; IQR 3.39-3.62 vs 3-D print, 4.50; IQR, 4.39-4.68; P < .001 and AR hologram, 4.83; IQR, 4.71-4.86; P < .001), and urinary collecting structures (conventional imaging, 2.76; IQR, 2.42-3.00 vs 3-D print, 3.86; IQR, 3.64-4.39; P < .001 and AR hologram, 4.00; IQR, 3.93-4.58; P < .001). There were no differences in anatomical assessment between the two 3-D techniques (the 3-D print and AR hologram).
Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the 3-D kidney models were associated with improved anatomical understanding among the surgeons and can be helpful in future preoperative planning of nephron-sparing surgery for Wilms tumors. These models may be considered as a supplementary visualization in clinical care.
- Augmented Reality
- Child, Preschool
- Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
- Models, Anatomic
- Preoperative Period
- Printing, Three-Dimensional
- Wilms Tumor/diagnostic imaging