EWSR1-The Most Common Rearranged Gene in Soft Tissue Lesions, Which Also Occurs in Different Bone Lesions: An Updated Review

Uta Flucke, Max M van Noesel, Vasiliki Siozopoulou, David Creytens, Bastiaan B J Tops, Joost M van Gorp, Laura S Hiemcke-Jiwa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

EWSR1 belongs to the FET family of RNA-binding proteins including also Fused in Sarcoma (FUS), and TATA-box binding protein Associated Factor 15 (TAF15). As consequence of the multifunctional role of EWSR1 leading to a high frequency of transcription of the chromosomal region where the gene is located, EWSR1 is exposed to aberrations such as rearrangements. Consecutive binding to other genes leads to chimeric proteins inducing oncogenesis. The other TET family members are homologous. With the advent of widely used modern molecular techniques during the last decades, it has become obvious that EWSR1 is involved in the development of diverse benign and malignant tumors with mesenchymal, neuroectodermal, and epithelial/myoepithelial features. As oncogenic transformation mediated by EWSR1-fusion proteins leads to such diverse tumor types, there must be a selection on the multipotent stem cell level. In this review, we will focus on the wide variety of soft tissue and bone entities, including benign and malignant lesions, harboring EWSR1 rearrangement. Fusion gene analysis is the diagnostic gold standard in most of these tumors. We present clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features and discuss differential diagnoses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1093
JournalDiagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)
Volume11
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2021

Keywords

  • Bone tumors
  • EWSR1
  • Molecular
  • Pathology
  • Soft tissue tumors

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