Generation of immunocompetent syngeneic allograft mouse models for pediatric diffuse midline glioma.

Aimée du Chatinier, Michael H. Meel, Arvid I. Das, Dennis S. Metselaar, Piotr Waranecki, Marianna Bugiani, Marjolein Breur, Erin F. Simonds, Edbert D. Lu, William A. Weiss, Juan J. Garcia Vallejo, Eelco W. Hoving, Timothy N. Phoenix, Esther Hulleman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) are highly malignant incurable pediatric brain tumors. A lack of effective treatment options highlights the need to investigate novel therapeutic strategies. This includes the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise in other hard-to-treat tumors. To facilitate preclinical immunotherapeutic research, immunocompetent mouse models that accurately reflect the unique genetic, anatomical, and histological features of DMG patients are warranted.

Methods: We established cell cultures from primary DMG mouse models (C57BL/6) that were generated by brainstem targeted intra-uterine electroporation (IUE). We subsequently created allograft DMG mouse models by orthotopically implanting these tumor cells into syngeneic mice. Immunohistochemistry and -fluorescence, mass cytometry, and cell-viability assays were then used to verify that these murine tumors recapitulated human DMG.

Results: We generated three genetically distinct allograft models representing histone 3 wildtype (H3WT) and K27M-mutant DMG (H3.3K27M and H3.1K27M). These allograft models recapitulated the histopathologic phenotype of their human counterparts, including their diffuse infiltrative growth and expression of DMG-associated antigens. These murine pontine tumors also exhibited an immune microenvironment similar to human DMG, characterized by considerable myeloid cell infiltration and a paucity of T-lymphocytes and NK cells. Finally, we show that these murine DMG cells display similar sensitivity to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition as patient-derived DMG cells.

Conclusions: We created and validated an accessible method to generate immunocompetent allograft models reflecting different subtypes of DMG. These models adequately recapitulated the histopathology, immune microenvironment, and therapeutic response of human DMG, providing useful tools for future preclinical studies
Original languageEnglish
JournalNeurooncology Advances
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 24 May 2022


  • DMG
  • DIPG
  • immunotherapy
  • syngeneic allograft
  • tumor microenvironment


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