Gonadal pathology and tumor risk in relation to clinical characteristics in patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism

Mosaicism Collaborative Group

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129 Citations (Scopus)


CONTEXT: Gonadectomy is avoided whenever possible in boys with 45,X/46,XY. However, no clinical markers are currently available to guide clinicians in predicting gonadal tumor risk or hormone production.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that gonadal histology and risk for development of a malignant germ cell tumor are reflected by the clinical presentation of a 45,X/46,XY individual.

DESIGN: The design of the study was the correlation of clinical data [external masculinization score (EMS), pubertal outcome] with pathology data (gonadal phenotype, tumor risk).

SETTING: This was a multicenter study involving two multidisciplinary disorder of sex development teams.

PATIENTS: Patients included genetically proven 45,X/46,XY (and variants) cases, of whom at least one gonadal biopsy or gonadectomy specimen was available, together with clinical details.

INTERVENTIONS: Patients (n = 48) were divided into three groups, based on the EMS. Gonadal histology and tumor risk were assessed on paraffin-embedded samples (n = 87) by morphology and immunohistochemistry on the basis of established criteria.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gonadal differentiation and tumor risk in the three clinical groups were measured. Clinical outcome in patients with at least one preserved gonad was also measured.

RESULTS: Tumor risk in the three groups was significantly related to the gonadal differentiation pattern (P < 0.001). In boys, hormone production was sufficient and was not predicted by the EMS.

CONCLUSIONS: The EMS reflects gonadal differentiation and tumor risk in patients with 45,X/46,XY. In boys, testosterone production is often sufficient, but strict follow-up is warranted because of malignancy risk, which appears inversely related to EMS. In girls, tumor risk is limited but gonads are not functional, making gonadectomy the most reasonable option.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E1171-80
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY/genetics
  • Gonads/pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mosaicism
  • Neoplasms/genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Risk
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations
  • Turner Syndrome/genetics


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