Integrin signaling at the M/G1 transition induces expression of cyclin E

Esther Hulleman, Jose J.M. Bijvelt, Arie J. Verkleij, C. Theo Verrips, Johannes Boonstra

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23 Citations (Scopus)


The activities of the mammalian G1 cyclins, cyclin D and cyclin E, during cell cycle progression (G1/S) are believed to be regulated by cell attachment and the presence of growth factors. In order to study the importance of cell attachment and concomitant integrin signaling on the expression of G1 cyclins during the natural adhesion process from mitosis to interphase, protein expression was monitored in cells that were synchronized by mitotic shake off. Here we show that in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and neuroblastoma (N2A) cells, expression of cyclin E at the M/G1 transition is regulated by both growth factors and cell attachment, while expression of cyclin D seems to be entirely dependent on the presence of serum. Expression of cyclin E appears to be correlated with the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, suggesting a link with the activity of the cyclin D/cdk4 complex. Expression of the cdk inhibitors p21(cip1/Waf1) and p27(Kip1) is not changed upon serum depletion or detachment of cells during early G1, suggesting no direct role for these CKIs in the regulation of cyclin activity. Although inhibition of cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity has been reported previously, this is the first time that cyclin E expression is shown to be dependent on cell attachment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-431
JournalExperimental Cell Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • mitotic shake off
  • Cyclin D
  • integrin signaling
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cyclin E
  • growth factors


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