Intermittent claudication has proved to be a good in vivo model for ischaemia-reperfusion. For assessment of ischaemia-reperfusion damage, the known biochemical markers all have disadvantages with respect to sensitivity and interference with other physiological events. In this work, we studied the metabolic effects of ischaemia-reperfusion in patients with intermittent claudication, and the effects of vitamin C and E intervention, using both traditional biochemical measurements and 1H-NMR-based metabonomics on urine and plasma. The 1H-NMR spectra were subjected to multivariate modelling using principal components discriminant analysis, and the observed clusters were validated using joint deployment of univariate analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference (HSD) testing. The study involved 14 patients with intermittent claudication and three healthy volunteers, who were monitored during a walking test, before and after a vitamin C/E intervention, and after a washout period. The effect of exercise was only observable for a limited number of biochemical markers, whereas 1H NMR revealed an effect in line with anaerobic ATP production via glycolysis in exercising (ischaemic) muscle of the claudicants. Thus, the beneficial effect of vitamins C and E in claudicants was more pronounced when observed by metabonomics than by traditional biochemical markers. The main effect was more rapid recovery from exercise to resting state metabolism. Furthermore, after intervention, claudicants tended to have lower concentrations of lactate and glucose and several other citric acid cycle metabolites, whereas acetoacetate was increased. The observed metabolic changes in the plasma suggest that intake of vitamin C/E leads to increased muscle oxidative metabolism.
- Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use
- Blood Chemical Analysis
- Intermittent Claudication/complications
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Middle Aged
- Reperfusion Injury/complications
- Vitamin E/therapeutic use