Modelling growth curves of the normal infant’s mandible: 3D measurements using computed tomography

Jan Aart M. Schipper, Manouk J.S. van Lieshout, Stefan Böhringer, Bonnie L. Padwa, Simon G.F. Robben, Rick R. van Rijn, Maarten J. Koudstaal, Maarten H. Lequin, Eppo B. Wolvius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Data on normal mandibular development in the infant is lacking though essential to understand normal growth patterns and to discriminate abnormal growth. The aim of this study was to provide normal linear measurements of the mandible using computed tomography performed in infants from 0 to 2 years of age. Material and methods: 3D voxel software was used to calculate mandibular body length, mandibular ramus length, bicondylar width, bigonial width and the gonial angle. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed for these measurements. They were found to be sufficient for all distances; intra-class correlation coefficients were all above 0.9. Regression analysis for growth modelling was performed. Results: In this multi-centre retrospective study, 109 CT scans were found eligible that were performed for various reasons (e.g. trauma, craniosynostosis, craniofacial abscesses). Craniosynostosis patients had larger mandibular measurements compared to non-craniosynostosis patients and were therefore excluded. Fifty-one CT scans were analysed. Conclusions: Analysis showed that the mandible increases more in size vertically (the mandibular ramus) than horizontally (the mandibular body). Most of the mandibular growth occurs in the first 6 months. Clinical relevance: These growth models provide insight into normal mandibular development in the first 2 years of life. This reference data facilitates discrimination between normal and abnormal mandibular growth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6365-6375
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Oral Investigations
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Growth
  • Infant
  • Mandible
  • Micrognathia
  • Normal
  • Three-dimensional


Dive into the research topics of 'Modelling growth curves of the normal infant’s mandible: 3D measurements using computed tomography'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this