Nosocomial RSV-related In-hospital Mortality in Children: A Global Case Series

Yvette N. Löwensteyn, Joukje E. Willemsen, Natalie I. Mazur, Nienke M. Scheltema, Nynke C.J. Van Haastregt, Amber A.A.Ten Buuren, Ichelle Van Roessel, Dunja Scheepmaker, Harish Nair, Peter M. Van De Ven, Louis J. Bont

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: According to the World Health Organization, the global burden of nosocomial infections is poorly characterized as surveillance systems are lacking. Nosocomial infections occur at higher rates in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) than in high-income countries (HICs). Current global RSV burden estimates are largely based on community-acquired infection. We aimed to characterize children with nosocomial RSV-related mortality and to understand the potential impact of RSV immunization strategies. Materials: RSV GOLD is a global registry of children younger than 5 years who died with laboratory-confirmed RSV infection. We compared clinical and demographic characteristics of children with nosocomial and community-acquired RSV in-hospital mortality. Results: We included 231 nosocomial and 931 community-acquired RSV-related in-hospital from deaths from 65 countries. Age at death was similar for both groups (5.4 vs. 6 months). A higher proportion of nosocomial deaths had comorbidities (87% vs. 57%; P < 0.001) or was born preterm (46% vs. 24%; P < 0.001) than community-acquired deaths. The proportion of nosocomial deaths among all RSV deaths was lower in LMICs than in upper-middle-income countries (UMICs) and HICs (12% vs. 18% and 26%, respectively). Conclusions: This is the first global case series of children dying with nosocomial RSV infection. Future infant-targeted immunization strategies could prevent the majority of nosocomial RSV-related deaths. Although nosocomial RSV deaths are expected to occur at highest rates in LMICs, the number of reported nosocomial RSV deaths was low in these countries. Hospital-based surveillance is needed to capture the full burden of nosocomial RSV mortality in LMICs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • child mortality
  • community-acquired infection
  • global health
  • nosocomial infection
  • respiratory syncytial virus
  • Hospitals
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Cross Infection/epidemiology
  • Research
  • Child
  • Infant, Newborn


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