Online real-time reconstruction of adaptive TSENSE with commodity CPU/GPU hardware

Sébastien Roujol, Baudouin Denis De Senneville, Erkki Vahala, Thomas Sangild Sørensen, Chrit Moonen, Mario Ries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Adaptive temporal sensitivity encoding (TSENSE) has been suggested as a robust parallel imaging method suitable for MR guidance of interventional procedures. However, in practice, the reconstruction of adaptive TSENSE images obtained with large coil arrays leads to long reconstruction times and latencies and thus hampers its use for applications such as MR-guided thermotherapy or cardiovascular catheterization. Here, we demonstrate a real-time reconstruction pipeline for adaptive TSENSE with low image latencies and high frame rates on affordable commodity personal computer hardware. For typical image sizes used in interventional imaging (128 x 96, 16 channels, sensitivity encoding (SENSE) factor 2-4), the pipeline is able to reconstruct adaptive TSENSE images with image latencies below 90 ms at frame rates of up to 40 images/s, rendering the MR performance in practice limited by the constraints of the MR acquisition. Its performance is demonstrated by the online reconstruction of in vivo MR images for rapid temperature mapping of the kidney and for cardiac catheterization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1658-1664
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • GPU hardware
  • Interventional imaging
  • Parallel imaging
  • Real-time reconstruction


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