Respiratory syncytial virus prevention within reach: the vaccine and monoclonal antibody landscape

Natalie I. Mazur, Jonne Terstappen, Ranju Baral, Azucena Bardají, Philippe Beutels, Ursula J. Buchholz, Cheryl Cohen, James E. Crowe, Clare L. Cutland, Linda Eckert, Daniel Feikin, Tiffany Fitzpatrick, Youyi Fong, Barney S. Graham, Terho Heikkinen, Deborah Higgins, Siddhivinayak Hirve, Keith P. Klugman, Leyla Kragten-Tabatabaie, Philippe LemeyRomina Libster, Yvette Löwensteyn, Asuncion Mejias, Flor M. Munoz, Patrick K. Munywoki, Lawrence Mwananyanda, Harish Nair, Marta C. Nunes, Octavio Ramilo, Peter Richmond, Tracy J. Ruckwardt, Charles Sande, Padmini Srikantiah, Naveen Thacker, Kody A. Waldstein, Dan Weinberger, Joanne Wildenbeest, Dexter Wiseman, Heather J. Zar, Maria Zambon, Louis Bont

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

155 Citations (Scopus)


Respiratory syncytial virus is the second most common cause of infant mortality and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults (aged >60 years). Efforts to develop a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine or immunoprophylaxis remain highly active. 33 respiratory syncytial virus prevention candidates are in clinical development using six different approaches: recombinant vector, subunit, particle-based, live attenuated, chimeric, and nucleic acid vaccines; and monoclonal antibodies. Nine candidates are in phase 3 clinical trials. Understanding the epitopes targeted by highly neutralising antibodies has resulted in a shift from empirical to rational and structure-based vaccine and monoclonal antibody design. An extended half-life monoclonal antibody for all infants is likely to be within 1 year of regulatory approval (from August, 2022) for high-income countries. Live-attenuated vaccines are in development for older infants (aged >6 months). Subunit vaccines are in late-stage trials for pregnant women to protect infants, whereas vector, subunit, and nucleic acid approaches are being developed for older adults. Urgent next steps include ensuring access and affordability of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine globally. This review gives an overview of respiratory syncytial virus vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in clinical development highlighting different target populations, antigens, and trial results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e2-e21
JournalThe Lancet Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Infant
  • Pregnancy
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human


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