Testicular cancer: Biology and biomarkers

Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Hans Stoop, Katharina Biermann

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The term "human germ cell tumors" (GCTs) refers to a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, all with a defined histological appearance. They have specific epidemiological characteristics, clinical behavior, and pathogenesis. Histologically, GCTs contain various tissue elements, which are homologs of normal embryogenesis. We have proposed a subclassification of GCTs in five subtypes, three of which preferentially occur in the testis. These include teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants (type I), seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults (type II), and spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly (type III). Both spontaneous and induced animal models have been reported, of which the relevance for human GCTs is still to be clarified. Multidisciplinary studies have recently shed new light on the (earliest steps in the) pathogenesis of GCTs, mainly in regard of malignant type II GCTs (germ cell cancer (GCC)). This review discusses novel understanding of the pathogenesis of (mainly) GCC, focusing on identification of informative diagnostic markers suitable for application in a clinical setting. These include OCT3/4, SOX9/FOXL2, SOX17/SOX2, as well as embryonic microRNAs. These markers have been identified through studies on normal embryogenesis, specifically related to the gonads, including the germ cell lineage. Their strengths and limitations are discussed as well as the expected future approach to identify the group of individuals at highest risk for development of a GCC. The latter would allow screening of defined populations, early diagnosis, optimal follow-up, and potentially early treatment, preventing long-term side effects of systemic treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-313
Number of pages13
JournalVirchows Archiv
Volume464
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Carcinoma in situ
  • Diagnostic markers
  • Follow-up
  • Germ cell tumor
  • Gonadoblastoma
  • Precursor lesions

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