Trained immunity: A program of innate immune memory in health and disease

Mihai G. Netea, Leo A.B. Joosten, Eicke Latz, Kingston H.G. Mills, Gioacchino Natoli, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Luke A.J. O'Neill, Ramnik J. Xavier

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1606 Citations (Scopus)


The general view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. In organisms lacking adaptive immunity, as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed "trained immunity" or "innate immune memory." Trained immunity is orchestrated by epigenetic reprogramming, broadly defined as sustained changes in gene expression and cell physiology that do not involve permanent genetic changes such as mutations and recombination, which are essential for adaptive immunity. The discovery of trained immunity may open the door for novel vaccine approaches, new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immune deficiency states, and modulation of exaggerated inflammation in autoinflammatory diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427
Number of pages1
Issue number6284
Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes


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