Variables affecting outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy

Robert Chiesa, Jaap Jan Boelens, Christine N. Duncan, Jorn Sven Kuhl, Caroline Sevin, Neena Kapoor, Vinod K. Prasad, Caroline A. Lindemans, Simon A. Jones, Hernan M. Amartino, Mattia Algeri, Nancy Bunin, Cristina Diaz-De-Heredia, Daniel J. Loes, Esther Shamir, Alison Timm, Elizabeth McNeil, Andrew C. Dietz, Paul J. Orchard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in early cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy can stabilize neurologic function and improve survival but has associated risks including transplant-related mortality (TRM), graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). An observational study of 59 patients with median age at allo-HSCT of 8 years addressed impact of donor source, donor match, conditioning regimen, and cerebral disease stage on first allo-HSCT outcomes. Efficacy analyses included 53 patients stratified by disease category: advanced disease (AD; n = 16) with Loes score >9 or neurological function score (NFS) >1 and 2 early disease (ED) cohorts (ED1 [Loes ≤4 and NFS ≤1; n = 24] and ED2 [Loes >4-9 and NFS ≤1; n = 13]). Survival free of major functional disabilities and without second allo-HSCT at 4 years was significantly higher in the ED (66%) vs AD (41%) cohort (P = .015) and comparable between ED1 and ED2 cohorts (P = .991). The stabilization of neurologic function posttransplant was greater in the ED vs AD cohort, with a median change from baseline at 24 months after allo-HSCT in NFS and Loes score, respectively, of 0 and 0.5 in ED1 (n = 13), 0.5 and 0 in ED2 (n = 6), and 2.5 and 3.0 (n = 4) in AD cohort. TRM was lower in the ED (7%) compared with the AD (22%) cohort; however, the difference was not significant (P = .094). Transplant-related safety outcomes were also affected by transplant-related characteristics: graft failure incidence was significantly higher with unrelated umbilical cord grafts vs matched related donors (P = .039), and acute GVHD and graft failure incidences varied by conditioning regimen. This study was registered at www://clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02204904.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1512-1524
Number of pages13
JournalBlood Advances
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2022

Keywords

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy/therapy
  • Graft vs Host Disease/etiology
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Recurrence
  • Transplantation Conditioning/adverse effects

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