Background: We previously reported a familial thyroid follicular cell carcinoma (FCC) in a large number of Dutch German longhaired pointers and identified two deleterious germline mutations in the TPO gene associated with disease predisposition. However, the somatic mutation profile of the FCC in dogs has not been investigated at a genome-wide scale. Results: Herein, we comprehensively investigated the somatic mutations that potentially contribute to the inherited tumor formation and progression using high depth whole-genome sequencing. A GNAS p.A204D missense mutation was identified in 4 out of 7 FCC tumors by whole-genome sequencing and in 20 out of 32 dogs’ tumors by targeted sequencing. In contrast to this, in the human TC, mutations in GNAS gene have lower prevalence. Meanwhile, the homologous somatic mutation in humans has not been reported. These findings suggest a difference in the somatic mutation landscape between TC in these dogs and human TC. Moreover, tumors with the GNAS p.A204D mutation had a significantly lower somatic mutation burden in these dogs. Somatic structural variant and copy number alterations were also investigated, but no potential driver event was identified. Conclusion: This study provides novel insight in the molecular mechanism of thyroid carcinoma development in dogs. German longhaired pointers carrying GNAS mutations in the tumor may be used as a disease model for the development and testing of novel therapies to kill the tumor with somatic mutations in the GNAS gene.