PURPOSE: To describe experience with partial nephrectomy combined with brachytherapy as part of the local management of bilateral Wilms tumor (WT) including a review of the available literature.
RESULTS (METHODS AND CASE DESCRIPTION): Between 2011 and 2014, three highly selected patients (age nine months, 16 months, and 4 years) with bilateral WT (two synchronous and one metachronous) underwent enucleation and perioperative brachytherapy to the tumor bed. With a minimum follow-up of 5 years, all three patients are in continuous complete remission with preserved kidney function.
CONCLUSIONS: Although nephron sparing surgery aiming at tumor free-margins remains the gold standard for bilateral WT, tumor enucleation followed by brachytherapy may be considered in carefully selected patients at high risk for end-stage kidney failure. Given the rarity and complexity of the procedure, concentration of care of such patients is mandatory.