The nuclear RNA surveillance mechanism is essential for cancer cell survival and is ensured by the RNA nuclear exosome including some co-factors, such as the RNA helicase MTR4. Recent studies suggest an involvement of DNA repair proteins such as apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease 1 (APE1), a major endodeoxyribonuclease of Base Excision Repair (BER), in RNA metabolism and RNA decay of oxidized and abasic RNA. Cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are commonly used for the treatment of solid tumours. Whether APE1 is involved in the elimination of CDDP- or 5-FU-damaged RNA is unknown, as is its possible interaction with the nuclear exosome complex. Here, by using different human cancer cell models, we demonstrated that: (a) APE1 is involved in the elimination of damaged-RNA, upon CDDP- and 5-FU-treatments, in a MTR4-independent manner; (b) the interaction between APE1 and MTR4 is stimulated by CDDP- and 5-FU-treatments through lysine residues in the APE1 N-terminal region and is, in part, mediated by nucleic acids and (c) APE1- and MTR4-depletion lead to the generation of R-loop formation causing the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway through the ATM-p53-p21 axis. Our data demonstrate a role of MTR4 in DDR underpinning the function of APE1 in controlling the RNA quality upon genotoxic treatments with possible implications in chemoresistance.