Purpose: Breast hypoplasia and impaired lactation are poorly studied sequelae of chest radiation therapy (RT) in children. The Pediatric Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic female breast task force aimed to quantitate the radiation dose-volume effects on these endpoints. Methods and Materials: A literature search was conducted of peer-reviewed manuscripts evaluating breast hypoplasia and lactation after chest RT in children, yielding 789 abstracts. Only 2 studies on children irradiated at <4 years of age for angioma of the breast provided dosimetric data correlated with breast hypoplasia. For patients who received brachytherapy, the dose was converted to external beam RT in equivalent 2 Gy fractions (DEBRT), although the limitations of this type of mathematical conversion need to be recognized. We calculated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) based on these data. Only 1 study was relevant to the lactation endpoint, in which patients were given RT for Hodgkin lymphoma at age 14 to 40 years. Results: The 3 studies involved 206 patients in total. In patients <4 years old at the time of RT, the prevalence of patient-perceived breast hypoplasia was 38% (RR 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.6) after DEBRT of <0.34 Gy, 61% (RR 4.0; 95% CI, 2.1-7.4) after DEBRT 0.34-0.97 Gy, and 97% (RR 6.3; 95% CI, 3.6-10.8) after DEBRT ≥0.97 Gy to the breast anlage. A simple linear regression model (r = 0.72; P < .001) showed that the treated breast was smaller than the untreated breast by 13% at DEBRT = 0.5 Gy, 20% at DEBRT = 1 Gy, 32% at DEBRT = 2 Gy, 51% at DEBRT = 4 Gy, 66% at DEBRT = 6 Gy, 79% at DEBRT = 8 Gy, and 90% at DEBRT = 10 Gy. The risk of unsuccessful breastfeeding was 39% after a median mediastinal dose of 41 Gy, compared with 21% in a sibling control group (P = .04). RT dose of ≥42 Gy was not associated with less breastfeeding success compared with <42 Gy, and data on lower doses were unavailable. Conclusions: Based on extremely limited data, young adults exposed to thoracic RT as children seem to be at significant risk of breast hypoplasia and impaired lactation. Doses as low as 0.3 Gy to immature breasts can cause breast hypoplasia. Additional studies are needed to quantify dose and technique effects with modern RT indications. Prospective collection of clinical outcomes and dosimetric factors would enhance our understanding of RT-induced breast hypoplasia and impaired lactation.
|Tijdschrift||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|Status||Geaccepteerd/In druk - 2021|