Background: To determine the impact of hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) disorders on health outcomes in children and adolescents who received conformal radiation therapy (RT) for central nervous system tumors. Procedure: Cohort study including 355 patients (age ≤25 years at diagnosis) treated with high-dose (50.4-59.4 Gy) RT using photons for low-grade glioma or ependymoma. Patients (median age, 6.4 years at RT) received systematic endocrine follow-up (median duration, 10.1 years; range, 0.1-19.6). Associations between HP disorders and adverse health outcomes were determined by multivariable analysis. Results: Prevalence was 37.2% for growth hormone deficiency (GHD), 17.7% for gonadotropin deficiency (LH/FSHD), 14.9% for thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency (TSHD), 10.3% for adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (ACTHD), and 12.6% for central precocious puberty (CPP). Hypothalamus mean dose ≥ 36 Gy was associated with higher odds of any deficiency. GHD was associated with short stature (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.34-5.70), low bone mineral density (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.16-10.40), and TSHD with dyslipidemia (OR 5.54; 95% CI 1.66-18.52). Patients with ACTHD and CPP had lower intelligence quotient scores, and memory scores were impaired in patients with GHD (P = 0.02). Treatment of GHD was not associated with increased risk for tumor recurrence, secondary tumors, or mortality. Conclusions: HP disorders occur frequently in patients receiving high-dose RT and are related to physical and neurocognitive well-being. Future studies are needed to assess whether further optimization of endocrine management yields better health outcomes.