CRISPR-Cas technology has revolutionized biological research and holds great therapeutic potential. Here, we review CRISPR-Cas systems and their latest developments with an emphasis on application to human cells. We also discuss how different CRISPR-based strategies can be used to accomplish a particular genome engineering goal. We then review how different CRISPR tools have been used in genome engineering of human stem cells in vitro, covering both the pluripotent (iPSC/ESC) and somatic adult stem cell fields and, in particular, 3D organoid cultures. Finally, we discuss the progress and challenges associated with CRISPR-based genome editing of human stem cells for therapeutic use.