Chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have significantly contributed to scientific understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, which has aided in the development of therapeutic strategies and enhanced management of AML patients. The diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of AML have also rapidly transformed in recent years, improving initial response to treatment, remission rates, risk stratification and overall survival. Hundreds of rare chromosomal abnormalities in AML have been discovered thus far using chromosomal analysis and next-generation sequencing. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized AML into subgroups based on genetic, genomic and molecular characteristics, to complement the existing French-American classification which is solely based on morphology. In this review, we aim to highlight the most clinically relevant chromosomal aberrations in AML together with the technologies employed to detect these aberrations in laboratory settings.