The risk of a severe course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in adults with Down syndrome is increased, resulting in an up to 10-fold increase in mortality, in particular in those >40 years of age. After primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, the higher risks remain. In this prospective observational cohort study, SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-specific antibody responses after routine SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (BNT162b2, messenger RNA [mRNA]-1273, or ChAdOx1) in adults with Down syndrome and healthy controls were compared. Adults with Down syndrome showed lower antibody concentrations after 2 mRNA vaccinations or after 2 ChAdOx1 vaccinations. After 2 mRNA vaccinations, lower antibody concentrations were seen with increasing age. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT05145348.