Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is among the most dangerous cancers with high mortality and lack of robust diagnostics and personalized/precision therapeutics. To achieve a systems-level understanding of tumorigenesis, unraveling of variations in the protein interactome and determination of key proteins exhibiting significant alterations in their interaction patterns during tumorigenesis are crucial. To this end, we have described differential protein-protein interactions and differentially interacting proteins (DIPs) in ESCC by utilizing the human protein interactome and transcriptome. Furthermore, DIP-centered modules were analyzed according to their potential in elucidation of disease mechanisms and improvement of efficient diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies. Seven modules were presented as potential diagnostic, and 16 modules were presented as potential prognostic biomarker candidates. Importantly, our findings also suggest that 30 out of the 53 repurposed drugs were noncancer drugs, which could be used in the treatment of ESCC. Interestingly, 25 of these, proposed as novel drug candidates here, have not been previously associated in a context of esophageal cancer. In this context, risperidone and clozapine were validated for their growth inhibitory potential in three ESCC lines. Our findings offer a high potential for the development of innovative diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies for further experimental studies in line with predictive diagnostics, targeted prevention, and personalization of medical services in ESCC specifically, and personalized cancer care broadly.