Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) cultured in serum are characterized by hyper-phosphorylated RB protein, lack of G1 control, and rapid progression through the cell cycle. Here, we show that ESCs grown in the presence of two small-molecule inhibitors (2i ESCs) have a longer G1-phase with hypo-phosphorylated RB, implying that they have a functional G1 checkpoint. Deletion of RB, P107, and P130 in 2i ESCs results in a G1-phase similar to that of serum ESCs. Inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway in serum ESCs results in the appearance of hypo-phosphorylated RB and the reinstatement of a G1 checkpoint. In addition, induction of a dormant state by the inhibition of MYC, resembling diapause, requires the presence of the RB family proteins. Collectively, our data show that RB-dependent G1 restriction point signaling is active in mouse ESCs grown in 2i but abrogated in serum by ERK-dependent phosphorylation. It is widely thought that embryonic stem cells have an unusual and very rapid cell cycle, lacking normal G1 regulation.
|Tijdschrift||Cell Stem Cell|
|Nummer van het tijdschrift||4|
|Status||Gepubliceerd - 5 okt. 2017|