Steroid-induced neuropsychological side effects impact quality of life in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Dexamethasone induces more metabolic side effects than prednisone. To evaluate whether dexamethasone also leads to more neuropsychological side effects, we reviewed all available literature. Randomized controlled trials with neuropsychological function as the primary or secondary outcome did not show clinically meaningful differences between dexamethasone and prednisone on cognition, mood or behavior. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:1313-1318.