Double SMCHD1 variants in FSHD2: The synergistic effect of two SMCHD1 variants on D4Z4 hypomethylation and disease penetrance in FSHD2

Marlinde L. Van Den Boogaard, Richard J.F.L. Lemmers, Pilar Camaño, Patrick J. Van Der Vliet, Nicol Voermans, Baziel G.M. Van Engelen, Adolfo Lopez De Munain, Stephen J. Tapscott, Nienke Van Der Stoep, Rabi Tawil, Silvère M. Van Der Maarel

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftArtikelpeer review

22 Citaten (Scopus)

Samenvatting

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) predominantly affects the muscles in the face, trunk and upper extremities and is marked by large clinical variability in disease onset and progression. FSHD is associated with partial chromatin relaxation of the D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4 and the somatic expression of the D4Z4 encoded DUX4 gene. The most common form, FSHD1, is caused by a contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4 to a size of 1-10 units. FSHD2, the less common form of FSHD, is most often caused by heterozygous variants in the chromatin modifier SMCHD1, which is involved in the maintenance of D4Z4 methylation. We identified three families in which the proband carries two potentially damaging SMCHD1 variants. We investigated whether these variants were located in cis or in trans and determined their functional consequences by detailed clinical information and D4Z4 methylation studies. In the first family, both variants in trans were shown to act synergistically on D4Z4 hypomethylation and disease penetrance, in the second family both SMCHD1 function-affecting variants were located in cis while in the third family one of the two variants did not affect function. This study demonstrates that having two SMCHD1 missense variants that affect function is compatible with life in males and females, which is remarkable considering its role in X inactivation in mice. The study also highlights the variability in SMCHD1 variants underlying FSHD2 and the predictive value of D4Z4 methylation analysis in determining the functional consequences of SMCHD1 variants of unknown significance.

Originele taal-2Engels
Pagina's (van-tot)78-85
Aantal pagina's8
TijdschriftEuropean Journal of Human Genetics
Volume24
Nummer van het tijdschrift1
DOI's
StatusGepubliceerd - 1 jan. 2016
Extern gepubliceerdJa

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