As in other cardiomyopathies, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling plays an important role in anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. To understand the pattern and timing of ECM remodeling pathways, we conducted a systematic review in which we describe protein and mRNA markers for ECM remodeling that are differentially expressed in the hearts of animals with anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. We included 68 studies in mice, rats, rabbits, and pigs with follow-up of 0.1–8.2 human equivalent years after anthracycline administration. Using meta-analysis, we found 29 proteins and 11 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy compared to controls. Collagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), inflammation markers, transforming growth factor ß signaling markers, and markers for cardiac hypertrophy were upregulated, whereas the protein kinase B (AKT) pro-survival pathway was downregulated. Their expression patterns over time from single time point studies were studied with meta-regression using human equivalent years as the time scale. Connective tissue growth factor showed an early peak in expression but remained upregulated at all studied time points. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and MMP9 protein levels increased in studies with longer follow-up. Significant associations were found for higher atrial natriuretic peptide with interstitial fibrosis and for higher BNP and MMP2 protein levels with left ventricular systolic function.