Rickets and residual rickets are often encountered in Dutch archeological skeletal samples. However, no archeological Dutch paleopathological case of adult osteomalacia has been described in literature to date. This paper describes the first four archeological Dutch paleopathological cases of osteomalacia and assesses the value of the various modalities (macroscopic assessment, radiology and histology) that may be used for diagnosis. The skeletal remains investigated originate from the Meerenberg psychiatric hospital cemetery in Bloemendaal, the Netherlands, and date from 1891 − 1936. The remains of 69 adult individuals were inspected for macroscopic lesions which may be associated with osteomalacia. In cases suspect for osteomalacia, complimentary radiological and histological investigations (BSE-SEM and light microscopy) were performed. Macroscopically, four individuals presented with lesions (highly) suggestive of osteomalacia. Histological examination (both BSE-SEM and light microscopy) provided valuable information to come to an eventual diagnosis of osteomalacia in all four cases. Light microscopy proved to be an feasible alternative for BSE-SEM. The added value of radiological analyses was limited. The individuals identified were most likely patients in the psychiatric hospital, and the reason for their institutionalization and/or the regime in the institution may have played a role in the development of the osteomalacia observed.