Methotrexate (MTX), an important chemotherapeutic agent, is often accompanied with mucositis. The occurrence and severity are unpredictable and show large interindividual variability. In this study, we review and meta-analyze previously studied genetic variants in relation to MTX-induced mucositis. We conducted a systematic search in Medline and Embase. We included genetic association studies of MTX-induced mucositis in cancer patients. A meta-analysis was conducted for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for which at least two studies found a statistically significant association. A total of 34 SNPs were associated with mucositis in at least one study of the 57 included studies. Two of the seven SNPs included in our meta-analysis were statistically significantly associated with mucositis: MTHFR c.677C > T (recessive, grade ≥3 vs grade 0–2, OR 2.53, 95 %CI [1.48–4.32], False Discovery Rate[FDR]-corrected p-value 0.011) and MTRR c.66A > G (overdominant, grade ≥1 vs grade 0, OR 2.08, 95 %CI [1.16–3.73], FDR-corrected p-value 0.042).