New drugs are needed for the treatment of relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and preclinical evaluation of the MEK inhibitor, selumetinib, has shown that this drug has excellent activity in those leukemias with RAS pathway mutations. The proapoptotic protein, BIM is pivotal in the induction of cell death by both selumetinib and glucocorticoids, suggesting the potential for synergy. Thus, combination indices for dexamethasone and selumetinib were determined in RAS pathway-mutated acute lymphoblastic leukemia primagraft cells in vitro and were indicative of strong synergism (combination index <0.2; n=5). Associated pharmacodynamic assays were consistent with the hypothesis that the drug combination enhanced BIM upregulation over that achieved by a single drug alone. Dosing of dexamethasone and selumetinib singly and in combination in mice engrafted with primary-derived RAS pathway-mutated leukemia cells resulted in a marked reduction in spleen size which was significantly greater with the drug combination. Assessment of the central nervous system leukemia burden showed a significant reduction in the drug-treated mice, with no detectable leukemia in those treated with the drug combination. These data suggest that a selumetinib-dexamethasone combination may be highly effective in RAS pathway-mutated acute lymphoblastic leukemia. An international phase I/II clinical trial of dexamethasone and selumetinib (Seludex trial) is underway in children with multiply relapsed/refractory disease.