CONTEXT: Gonadectomy is avoided whenever possible in boys with 45,X/46,XY. However, no clinical markers are currently available to guide clinicians in predicting gonadal tumor risk or hormone production.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that gonadal histology and risk for development of a malignant germ cell tumor are reflected by the clinical presentation of a 45,X/46,XY individual.
DESIGN: The design of the study was the correlation of clinical data [external masculinization score (EMS), pubertal outcome] with pathology data (gonadal phenotype, tumor risk).
SETTING: This was a multicenter study involving two multidisciplinary disorder of sex development teams.
PATIENTS: Patients included genetically proven 45,X/46,XY (and variants) cases, of whom at least one gonadal biopsy or gonadectomy specimen was available, together with clinical details.
INTERVENTIONS: Patients (n = 48) were divided into three groups, based on the EMS. Gonadal histology and tumor risk were assessed on paraffin-embedded samples (n = 87) by morphology and immunohistochemistry on the basis of established criteria.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gonadal differentiation and tumor risk in the three clinical groups were measured. Clinical outcome in patients with at least one preserved gonad was also measured.
RESULTS: Tumor risk in the three groups was significantly related to the gonadal differentiation pattern (P < 0.001). In boys, hormone production was sufficient and was not predicted by the EMS.
CONCLUSIONS: The EMS reflects gonadal differentiation and tumor risk in patients with 45,X/46,XY. In boys, testosterone production is often sufficient, but strict follow-up is warranted because of malignancy risk, which appears inversely related to EMS. In girls, tumor risk is limited but gonads are not functional, making gonadectomy the most reasonable option.
|Tijdschrift||The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism|
|Nummer van het tijdschrift||7|
|Status||Gepubliceerd - jul. 2011|