BACKGROUND: Holographic neuronavigation has several potential advantages compared to conventional neuronavigation systems. We present the first report of a holographic neuronavigation system with patient-to-image registration and patient tracking with a reference array using an augmented reality head-mounted display (AR-HMD).
METHODS: Three patients undergoing an intracranial neurosurgical procedure were included in this pilot study. The relevant anatomy was first segmented in 3D and then uploaded as holographic scene in our custom neuronavigation software. Registration was performed using point-based matching using anatomical landmarks. We measured the fiducial registration error (FRE) as the outcome measure for registration accuracy. A custom-made reference array with QR codes was integrated in the neurosurgical setup and used for patient tracking after bed movement.
RESULTS: Six registrations were performed with a mean FRE of 8.5 mm. Patient tracking was achieved with no visual difference between the registration before and after movement.
CONCLUSIONS: This first report shows a proof of principle of intraoperative patient tracking using a standalone holographic neuronavigation system. The navigation accuracy should be further optimized to be clinically applicable. However, it is likely that this technology will be incorporated in future neurosurgical workflows because the system improves spatial anatomical understanding for the surgeon.