Context: Data on hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) disorders in systematically evaluated childhood cancer survivors are limited. Objective: To describe prevalence, risk factors, and associated adverse health outcomes of deficiencies in GH deficiency (GHD), TSH deficiency (TSHD), LH/FSH deficiency (LH/FSHD), and ACTH deficiency (ACTHD), and central precocious puberty (CPP). Design: Retrospective with cross-sectional health outcomes analysis. Setting: Established cohort; tertiary care center. Patients: Participants (N = 3141; median age, 31.7 years) were followed for a median 24.1 years. Main Outcome Measure: Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs for associations among HP disorders, tumor- and treatment-related risk factors, and health outcomes. Results: The estimated prevalence was 40.2% for GHD, 11.1% for TSHD, 10.6% for LH/FSHD, 3.2% for ACTHD, and 0.9% for CPP among participants treated with HP radiotherapy (n = 1089), and 6.2% for GHD, and <1% for other HP disorders without HP radiotherapy. Clinical factors independently associated with HP disorders included HP radiotherapy (at any dose for GHD, TSHD, LH/FSHD, >30 Gy for ACTHD), alkylating agents (GHD, LH/FSHD), intrathecal chemotherapy (GHD), hydrocephalus with shunt placement (GHD, LH/FSHD), seizures (TSHD, ACTHD), and stroke (GHD, TSHD, LH/FSHD, ACTHD). Adverse health outcomes independently associated with HP disorders included short stature (GHD, TSHD), severe bone mineral density deficit (GHD, LH/FSHD), obesity (LH/FSHD), frailty (GHD), impaired physical health-related quality of life (TSHD), sexual dysfunction (LH/FSHD), impaired memory, and processing speed (GHD, TSHD). Conclusion: HP radiotherapy, central nervous system injury, and, to a lesser extent, chemotherapy are associated with HP disorders, which are associated with adverse health outcomes.