Object. The development of hypoxia in human gliomas is closely related to functional vasculature and the presence of hypoxia has important biological and therapeutic consequences. Assessment of hypoxia is necessary to understand its role in treatment response and to evaluate treatment strategies to improve tumor oxygenation. In this study, the authors report findings of their analysis of the degree of hypoxia in relation to other vascular parameters in a human intracerebral glioma xenograft. Methods. In sections of tumor, hypoxic regions were identified immunohistochemically by using the hypoxic marker pimonidazole. The S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine was used to detect cell proliferation, and the perfusion marker Hoechst 33342 was used to delineate perfused vessels. Vascular structures were stained with an endothelial marker. Hypoxic tumor regions were clearly present in this human intracerebral glioma model. Hypoxic areas were usually found in nonperfused regions, whereas tumor cell proliferation was especially marked in perfused tumor areas. Furthermore, by using in situ hybridization the authors identified infiltrating tumor cells in the normal brain. This feature is often observed in gliomas in patients. Conclusions. This model is a representative human glioma model that provides the researcher with the opportunity to analyze the relationship between the degree of hypoxia and vascular parameters, as well as to examine the effects of treatments aimed at modification of the oxygenation status of a tumor.