Background: The prevalence of obesity has shown a dramatic increase over recent decades. Obesity is associated with underdosing of antimicrobial drugs for prophylaxis and treatment. Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal drug licensed for prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections. It is unclear how posaconazole should be dosed in obese patients. Methods: We performed a prospective study investigating the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in morbidly obese (n = 16) and normal-weight (n = 8) subjects, with a weight ranging between 61.4 and 190 kg, after a 300 or 400 mg IV dose. Population pharmacokinetic modelling was used to assess the effect of body size on posaconazole pharmacokinetics. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03246386. Results: Total body weight best predicted changes in CL and V. Model-based simulations demonstrated that, for treatment of fungal infections, a daily IV dose of 300 mg will result in a PTA of ≥90% in individuals up to 140 kg, after which both twice daily loading and the daily maintenance dose should be increased to 400 mg. For prophylaxis, a 300 mg IV dose is adequate in patients up to 190 kg. Conclusions: Body size has a significant impact on posaconazole CL and V, resulting in a lower exposure in obese subjects compared with normal-weight subjects. For therapeutic use of posaconazole, a dose increase is required in patients above 140 kg. For prophylaxis, a 300 mg IV dose is adequate. For oral treatment, these recommendations can act as a starting point followed by therapeutic drug monitoring.