Background: This population-based study is the first to provide a detailed analysis of trends in incidence and survival of children and adolescents diagnosed with renal malignancies in the Netherlands. Methods: Data on all renal malignancies diagnosed in paediatric patients (0–18 years) between 1990 and 2014 [N = 648, 92% Wilms tumour (WT)] were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Five-year overall survival (OS) was estimated using the actuarial method. Time trends in incidence were assessed by calculating average annual percentage change. A parametric survival model was used to compare the multivariable-adjusted risk of dying from WT between two diagnostic periods. Results: The incidence was 8 per million person-years and was constant over time (average annual percentage change -0.8%, p = 0.29). Patients with WT had a favourable outcome in both time periods; 5-year OS was 88% in 1990–2001 and 91% in 2002–2014. Multivariable analysis showed that the risk of dying from WT was not significantly decreased in the latest period (hazard ratio, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.4–1.3). Five-year OS decreased with increasing disease stage, ranging from 95 to 100% for stage I-II and about 80% for stage III–IV to 74% for bilateral disease. Five-year OS were 81% for renal cell carcinoma, 77% for clear cell sarcoma of the kidney and 20% for malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney. Conclusions: Incidence of paediatric renal malignancies in the Netherlands has been stable since the 1990s. Five-year OS of WT reached 91% and was similar to findings for other developed countries. Contrary to the excellent outcome for WT, the outcome of malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney remained inferior.