The anticancer drug docetaxel exhibits large interpatient pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability. In this study, we aimed to assess the functional significance of 14 polymorphisms in the CYP3A, CYP1B1, ABCB1, ABCC2, and SLCO1B3 genes for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral docetaxel, co-administered with ritonavir. None of the tested CYP3A, ABCB1, ABCC2, and SLCO1B3 genotypes and diplotypes showed a significant relation with an altered bioavailability or clearance of either docetaxel or ritonavir. Similarly, no clear effect of CYP1B1 genotype on clinical outcomes was observed in a subgroup of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Our post hoc power analysis indicated that our pharmacogenetic–pharmacokinetic analysis was only powered for relatively high effect sizes, which were to be expected given the high interpatient variability. This makes it unlikely that future studies will explain the high observed interpatient variability in oral docetaxel pharmacokinetics as a result of any of these separate polymorphisms and diplotypes.