This multi-center cohort-study examined late mortality among 6,165 Dutch five-year childhood cancer survivors diagnosed 1963-2001. Clinical details and cause of death were based on medical records. Mortality was 12-fold that of the general population, with 51.3 additional deaths per 10,000 person-years (21.9 yrs median follow-up). Cumulative mortality 15 yrs post-diagnosis was 6.9%, predominantly from late recurrences; thereafter the absolute contribution of other health outcomes increased. Cumulative all-cause and recurrence-related mortality were highest for Central Nervous System and bone tumor survivors. All-cause, but not subsequent tumor and circulatory disease-related cumulative mortality, was highest for patients diagnosed 1963-1979 vs. later (p-trend <0.001).