Background: We previously reported the efficacy of a combined treatment of active acromegaly with both long-acting somatostatin analogs (SSA) and pegvisomant (PEG-V). Objective: Our objective was to assess long-term efficacy and safety in a larger group of acromegalic patients after a period of 138 (35-149) wk [median (range)]. Design: PEG-V was added to high-dose SSA treatment in 32 subjects (13 females) who had not shown a normalization in serum IGF-I concentrations during SSA monotherapy. PEG-V dosage was increased until IGF-I concentration normalized. The maximal dose was 80 mg twice weekly. Results: After dose finding, IGF-I remained within the normal range in all subjects with PEG-V administered once (n = 24) or twice (n = 8) weekly, on a total weekly dose of 60 (40-160) mg. Baseline IGF-I levels were positively correlated with the required dosage of PEG-V (r = 0.48; P = 0.006). PEG-V-dependent liver enzyme disturbances were observed in 11 (6 diabetic) subjects, of which symptomatic gallstones explained two cases. These liver enzyme disturbances were transient in all subjects without discontinuation or dose adaptation of PEG-V. In our series, diabetic patients had a 5.1 times (odds ratio) (confidence interval, 1.02-25.54; P < 0.05) higher risk for developing liver enzyme disturbances. These liver enzyme disturbances seemed to occur earlier. Pituitary adenoma size decreased in four patients. No increase in tumor size was observed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Long-term combined treatment with long-acting SSA and (twice) weekly PEG-V for active acromegaly seems to be effective and safe. Patients with acromegaly and diabetes seem to have a higher risk of developing transient liver enzyme disturbances.