Pregnancy-related cancer management represents a real challenge for both the patients and the physicians. The long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of children in utero exposed to chemotherapeutic agents has only recently been addressed. This review aims to systematically integrate and highlight all existing data from the literature regarding the effect of prenatal exposure to chemotherapy on fetal brain growth and child development. All eligible studies are based on validated neurodevelopmental testing scales (e.g., Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence) and/or well-defined questionnaires. Our systematic review including 17 studies demonstrates that no major consequences on the neurodevelopment of children after in utero exposure to anti-cancer drugs have been reported; nevertheless, longer and more thorough follow-up with large-scale multicenter prospective studies is certainly required in order to draw firm conclusions.