In this retrospective study we investigated the long-term survival of autotransplanted premolars and molars with incompletely developed roots. The presence of the transplanted teeth and their outcome after autotransplantation was ascertained from clinical and radiographic evaluation by a maxillofacial surgeon or dentist. Kaplan Meier survival curves were estimated for the total population and for the two groups (premolars and molars). Fifty-one patients with 74 transplanted teeth were included, and the median duration of follow-up was 10 (range 1–20) years. Four of 66 premolars and one of 8 molars were removed and the cumulative survival was 95.4% (95% CI 90.3 to 100). The difference in survival between the premolars and molars was not significant. These results show that the long-term survival of autotransplanted teeth is good. Replacement of a single tooth by autotransplantation should therefore always be considered and is preferred when a suitable donor tooth is available.