Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which differ in histological, pathologic and clinical characteristics. The tumors originate from different locations within the nephron and are accompanied by different recurrent (cyto)genetic anomalies. Recently, a novel subgroup of RCCs has been defined, i.e., the MiT translocation subgroup of RCCs. These tumors originate from the proximal tubule of the nephron, exhibit pleomorphic histological features including clear cell morphologies and papillary structures, and are found predominantly in children and young adults. In addition, these tumors are characterized by the occurrence of recurrent chromosomal translocations, which result in disruption and fusion of either the TFE3 or TFEB genes, both members of the MiT family of basic helix-loop-helix/leucine-zipper transcription factor genes. Hence the name MiT translocation subgroup of RCCs. In this review several features of this RCC subgroup will be discussed, including the molecular mechanisms that may underlie their development.