CONTEXT: Maturation delay of germ cells and their progression into carcinoma in situ (CIS) frequently occurs in intersex patients. A developmentally delayed germ cell resembles a CIS cell and displays prolonged expression of immunohistochemical markers used for the diagnosis of CIS. This questions their applicability in young children.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was the elaboration of tools to distinguish germ cells with maturation delay and CIS.
DESIGN: The design was a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the expression of diagnostic markers for CIS in gonads of young patients with undervirilization syndromes.
SETTING: The study was conducted in the pathology department of a university center, specializing in germ cell tumor pathogenesis.
PATIENTS: Fifty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded testicular tissue samples of 30 undervirilized patients (1 month to 23 yr of age) were analyzed.
INTERVENTIONS: INTERVENTIONS included hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemistry for octamer binding transcription factor (OCT)3/4, gene encoding the stem cell factor receptor that has tyrosine kinase activity c-KIT, placental/germ alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), testis-specific protein Y encoded (TSPY), and VASA, double staining for OCT3/4 and VASA, with ploidy determination by fluorescent in situ hybridization.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Maturation delay and CIS are characterized by the staining patterns of the immunohistochemical markers.
RESULTS: CIS was diagnosed in three of 30 patients (10%) and four of 58 gonads (6.9%). Patient age, distribution of OCT3/4-positive cells throughout the gonad, and their position within the seminiferous tubule differ between maturation delay and CIS. Abnormal OCT3/4 and testis-specific protein Y encoded expression appear to be of pathogenetic relevance in the development of these lesions.
CONCLUSION: The dimorphic expression of OCT3/4 allows distinction between maturation delay and CIS. Studies in larger patient series are essential before a biopsy to evaluate the neoplastic risk can eventually be proposed as an alternative for gonadectomy.
|Tijdschrift||The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism|
|Nummer van het tijdschrift||9|
|Status||Gepubliceerd - sep. 2005|