Background: Ploidy is a highly significant prognostic factor for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Children with hypodiploid ALL have poor outcomes despite current intensive chemotherapy. Little has been investigated with regard to hypodiploid ALL in Japanese children. Methods: We retrospectively collected clinical data on hypodiploid ALL cases from the registries of prospective multicenter trials conducted by the four independent clinical study groups in Japan between 1997 and 2012. Results: A total of 117 ALL patients with hypodiploidy were analyzed in this study. There were 101, eight, and eight patients with 45, 44, and fewer than 44 chromosomes, respectively. The 5 year overall survival rates differed significantly: 86.0%, 87.5%, and 62.5% for patients with 45, 44, and fewer than 44 chromosomes, respectively (P = 0.037). Of the eight patients with 44 chromosomes, seven were alive, including five patients who maintained complete remission without undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of the eight patients with fewer than 44 chromosomes, six were good responders to prednisolone and none had induction failure, but the relapse rate was high (5/8). No patients had central nervous system relapse. Four patients underwent HSCT after relapse, but only one survived. Conclusions: Outcomes of Japanese ALL patients with fewer than 44 chromosomes were poor, as previously reported in other countries. Although the sample size was small, patients with 44 chromosomes had better prognoses than those previously reported. Further studies including international collaboration are needed to improve outcomes for pediatric ALL patients with fewer than 44 chromosomes.