Neuroblastoma survivors have an increased risk of unfavorable long-term health outcomes, of which developing subsequent neoplasms is one of the most serious. We aimed to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the risk of subsequent neoplasms in neuroblastoma survivors. We conducted a systematic literature search in Medline/Pubmed (01–01-1945–13-01–2022) to identify studies that reported on ≥ 100 neuroblastoma survivors and assessed subsequent neoplasms as an outcome. We identified 410 potentially eligible articles, of which we eventually included 13 reports. All articles described retrospective cohorts with sizes varying from 145 to 5,987 neuroblastoma survivors. Within these cohorts 0.7% – 17.2% of the survivors developed a subsequent neoplasm. A wide variety of types of subsequent malignant and non-malignant neoplasms were observed, of which thyroid carcinoma and acute myeloid leukemia were most frequently reported. The risk of developing a subsequent neoplasm was 2.8 to 10.4 times higher in neuroblastoma survivors than in the general population. Although no statistically significant risk factors for subsequent neoplasms were observed in multivariable analyses, high-risk group survivors, women and those treated with radiotherapy seemed to have a higher risk. In conclusion, the studies in this systematic review consistently show that neuroblastoma survivors are at elevated risk of developing subsequent neoplasms. Future research should further explore risk factors for subsequent neoplasms in neuroblastoma survivors, so future treatment protocols and follow-up care can be improved.