Computed tomography (CT) scans are the gold standard to measure treatment success of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapies. Here, we investigated the very early tumor response of patients receiving chemotherapy or targeted therapies using a panel of already established and explorative liquid biomarkers. Blood samples from 50 patients were taken at baseline and at three early time points after therapy initiation. DNA mutations, a panel of 17 microRNAs, glycodelin, glutathione disulfide, glutathione, soluble caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 (M30 antigen), and soluble cytokeratin 18 (M65 antigen) were measured in serum and plasma samples. Baseline and first follow-up CT scans were evaluated and correlated with biomarker data. The detection rate of the individual biomarkers was between 56% and 100%. While only keratin 18 correlated with the tumor load at baseline, we found several individual markers correlating with the tumor response to treatment for each of the three time points of blood draws. A combination of the five best markers at each time point resulted in highly significant marker panels indicating therapeutic response (R2 = 0.78, R2 = 0.71, and R2 = 0.71). Our study demonstrates that an early measurement of biomarkers immediately after therapy start can assess tumor response to treatment and might support an adaptation of treatment to improve patients’ outcome.