Introduction: Survival rates of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) seem extremely poor, and the available literature on the matter is scarce. Accordingly, there is a limited understanding of poor treatment outcomes seen in this population. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the available literature with respect to treatment outcomes of pediatric AML in LMICs yielding poor outcomes compared to high-income countries. Moreover, treatment outcomes vary markedly between LMICs. In addition, there is a wide variation among studies in how treatment outcomes are reported and analyzed. Expert opinion: The substantially inferior treatment outcomes of pediatric AML in LMICs emphasize the unprecedented importance of global initiatives and international collaborations to improve the survival of these patients. A coordinated approach is necessary to carry out country-specific situational analyses. These analyses will result in operational plans on how to structurally implement childhood cancer registries, align healthcare infrastructure, build on capacities, and provide universal health coverage in LMICs. In addition, we strongly recommend that, in the future, LMICs document, analyze, and publish pediatric AML treatment outcomes in a more structured and uniform manner.